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공개·회원 4명

Aged Arab


The Australian and Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for children and youth synthesized studies in English and French or other languages (if able to be translated with Google translate) and found very few studies published in English from Arabic countries that examined the relationship between objectively measured sedentary behaviour (SB), sleep and physical activity (PA) and health indicators in children aged 5-12 years. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the relationships between 24-hour movement behaviours and health indicators in school-aged children from Arab-speaking countries. Online databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus were searched for English, French and Arabic studies (written in English), while Saudi Digital Library, ArabBase, HumanIndex, KSUP, Pan-Arab Academic Journal, e-Marefa, Al Manhal eLibrary and Google Scholar were searched for Arabic studies. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework was used to assess the risk of bias and the quality of evidence for each health indicator. A total of 16 studies, comprising 15,346 participants from nine countries were included. These studies were conducted between 2000 and 2019. In general, low levels of PA and sleep and high SB were unfavourably associated with adiposity outcomes, behavioural problems, depression and low self-esteem. Favourable associations were reported between sleep duration and adiposity outcomes. SB was favourably associated with adiposity outcomes, withdrawn behaviour, attention and externalizing problems. PA was favourably associated with improved self-esteem and adiposity outcomes. Further studies to address the inequality in the literature in the Arab-speaking countries to understand the role of 24-hour movement behaviours and its positive influence on health outcomes across childhood are urgently needed.




aged arab



Methods: The electronic databases Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), MEDLINE (Ovid), Ageline, ProQuest, CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO and Google Scholar were searched from 1990-October 2012. Search terms included health care needs, aged care, ethnic, cultural, linguistics, social, ethnic groups, culturally and linguistically diverse, nonEnglish speaking, ageing, elderly, Arabs, Arabic-speaking and Australia.


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International research has varied in its characterization of intergenerational solidarity. While studies show that support, including financial exchanges, is likely to flow upwards from adult children to older parents (6,7), other findings show that financial support continues to flow from older parents towards adult children, at least until parents begin to undergo a decline in health (8,9), with categorically different filial norms across populations (6). Deindl and Brandt noted that when generous provision of government-sponsored social services exists and children have to provide less financial support, other kinds of voluntary or emotional support are encouraged (10).


While data on material exchanges across generations are scarce in Arab countries, some information is available from the national Pan Arab Project for Family Health studies conducted in Algeria, Lebanon and Palestine and from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Saudi Arabia, as well as a number of specialized small-scale studies in Tunisia and Egypt. Data show that older persons are not only recipients of care but also provide support within the family (between 34% and 40% of older persons in Algeria, Lebanon and Palestine provide help in child-rearing and domestic chores) and extend financial support to their children and other family members (between 26% and 61%) (7). Furthermore, data from Lebanon show that financial support for older parents is received from adult children (54.1% of older men and 68.6% of older women), and that this percentage increases consistently with age, approaching 72% of those aged 80 years and over (1). Research from Egypt reveals that older parents and adult children maintain frequent contact, creating expectations of and opportunities for economic exchange by which older fathers are disproportionate givers and older mothers are disproportionate receivers of economic transfers (18).


The Arabic SBQ had satisfactory levels of reliability, with total sitting time of the Arabic SBQ correlating significantly with sitting times derived from IPAQ-SF, IPAQ-LF, and the English SBQ versions. Hence, the Arabic SBQ can be used as a tool to measure sedentary behavior among adult Arabs aged between 18 to 30 years old in future epidemiologic and clinical practice.


A recent meta-analysis study showed that sedentary behaviour is more likely to be underestimated if few items were used in questionnaires, compared to a multi-domain questionnaire such as the Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) [7, 8]. SBQ is designed to obtain detailed estimates of sedentary behaviour as it includes 9 behavioral types (watching television, playing computer/video games, sitting while listening to music, sitting and talking on the phone, doing paperwork or office work, sitting and reading, playing a musical instrument, doing arts and crafts, and sitting and driving/riding in a car, bus or train on weekdays and weekends) [7, 8]. SBQ as a validated questionnaire adapted and used in different language versions such as Spanish [9, 10], Turkish [11], Slovenian [12], German and Danish [10]. Since sedentary behaviour is particularly common in modern urban life, attention has been paid to its prevalence with respect to other ethnic groups such as the Saudi Arabian people, and, in fact, for the first time, recommendations regarding sedentary behavior prevention was introduced (i.e. The 24-h Movement Practice Guidelines for Saudi Arabia) [13]. Few researches have been conducted in Saudi Arabia on sedentary behaviour, relying on a questionnaire focusing on a single domain, such as screen time (watching TV, using the internet, and playing electronic games) [14,15,16,17,18,19]. To the best of our knowledge, no version of the original English SBQ has been established in Arab countries. Therefore, this study aimed to adapt the English version of SBQ to the Saudi population and test its validity and reproducibility on a sample of students aged between 18 to 30 years old in Madinah, Western Saudi Arabia.


This study is the first to adapt the original English version of SBQ into the Arabic language, and to test the validity and reliability of the Arabic SBQ. The present study showed that the Arabic version of SBQ has moderate to good levels of reliability as a tool to assess sedentary behavior among the Saudi university students aged from 18 to 30 years old.


Typically, though not entirely, Islamic art depicts nature patterns and Arabic calligraphy, rather than figures, because many Muslims feared that the depiction of the human form is idolatry and thereby a sin against God, forbidden in the Quran. There are repeating elements in Islamic art, such as the use of geometrical floral or vegetal designs in a repetition known as the arabesque. The arabesque in Islamic art is often used to symbolize the transcendent, indivisible, and infinite nature of God. Mistakes in repetitions may be intentionally introduced as a show of humility by artists who believe only God can produce perfection, although this theory is disputed.


As the Abbasid empire grew, it also expanded eastward, bringing it into contact with the ancient Egyptian, Greek, Indian, Chinese, and Persian civilizations, the fruits of which it readily enjoyed. (In this era, Muslims found little of interest in the West, and for good reason.) One of the most important discoveries by Muslims was paper, which was probably invented in China around a.d. 105 and brought into the Islamic world starting in the mid-eighth century. The effect of paper on the scholarly culture of Arabic society was enormous: it made the reproduction of books cheap and efficient, and it encouraged scholarship, correspondence, poetry, recordkeeping, and banking.


There are more than 15 million people aged over 65 currently living in the MENA region, yet little attention has been paid to the cultural significance of growing old. This book recognises the widespread silence by countering the critical corpus that reads modern Arabic novels as a political discourse with an emphasis on youth achievement. By assembling a range of fictional works from different parts of the Arab world that incorporate older characters, this book draws on a range of theoretical approaches to aging, particularly from the perspective of gender and feminism, to reconcile the biological and cultural understandings of old age. It reveals that there is no standard female or male experience and no single prototype of oldness in the modern Arabic novel, and that men and women manifest a multiplicity of identities, concerns, and experiences as they grow older. 041b061a72


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